Start by dissecting the phone number to figure out what country and city the call came from. The initial digits of the number is a country code followed by a city code. There are a number of international phone call code lookups you can use. Then Google the local number with the country name or the city name as part of the search, and with a bit of luck, you'll have the identification you're looking for.
Need more information? Newspaper archives are one of the best online research tools. If you're searching for information on people, try Intelius.